horizonte  is an internet locality, where the old and noble genre of landscape in art is looked upon, specially in painting or drawing.

 

Landscape in art is seen here, from different angles, from the basics,

techniques, variations to examples.

 

Participations or commentaries are welcomed. To do so, just make contact using the following e-mail: adc.eu@sapo.pt.

 

 

 

basics

To execute a landscape in a painting or drawing, several aspects should be considered, like: the composition, the effect of distance, the sketch,

painting or drawing techniques, etc.

 

 

 

composition

Composition in landscape art will determine the dynamics present in the image produced.

 

As an example, below, there are three variations of a simple sketch of a

landscape. In the first case, the main element, a tree, is cut by the visual limits of the art. As such, the dynamic surrounding the tree is broken, producing a certain tension; besides creating a certain mystery, always present when the artist hides part of an image.

 

 

In the second sketch, the main element, a tree, is cut by the visual limits of the art, but now by the very limits of the tree itself. The result is another type of tension. The dynamic surrounding the tree is broken, but it almost isn’t, resulting in an ambiguity. The mystery is less in

comparison to the first sketch. The tension is of a nervous type.

 

 

In the third sketch, the main element, a tree, is not cut by the visual

limits of the art. The result is equilibrium, stability. The dynamic

surrounding the tree is not broken, but on the other hand, there is no

tension.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

types of landscapes

Opening the doors to imagination, it is possible to create many and exotic types of landscapes. But before doing so, we have the more traditional types, such as: the sea landscape, the urban landscape, or simply the country landscape.

 

 

 

country landsacpe

A more traditional version of landscape in bi-dimensional art, the country landscape has its own basics: a wide vision of a natural field, the sky, a care with the composiion, a certain spirituality with nature, among others. Figures, if present, are usually secundary elements.

 

Poppies Blooming1

by Claude Monet

oil on canvas, 50x65 cm

 

snow and landscape

by António de Campos

acrilic on canvas, 30x30 cm

 

 

 

 

sea landsacpe

Another type of traditional landscape in bi-dimensional art, the sea

landsacpe replaces the earth with the sea. Apart from that, it maintains

many of the basics present in the country landscape. The presence of ships is very common.

 

The Fighting Temeraire2

by J. M. W. Turner

oil on canvas, 91x122 cm

 

sail

by António de Campos

ball-point pen, 10x10 cm

 

 

 

 

sky landsacpe

Meanwhile, in a less traditional spirit of bi-dimensional landscape art, the sky landscape abdicates any reference to the ground. The basics present are now very much manipulated by the artist, in comparison with the more traditional types of landscapes. The presence of the sky is fundamental.

 

sunset

by António de Campos

acrilic on canvas, 30x30 cm

 

 

 

 

abstract landsacpe

Another not at all traditional type of bi-dimensional landscape art, the abstract landscape can ignore any of the basics present in the more traditional types of landscapes. Nevertheless, to be considered still as a landscape, the abstract landscape must provide some manifestation, that  justifies its inclusion in the world of landscape art.

 

struture of a channel

by António de Campos

acrilic on canvas, 40x40 cm

 

 

 

NOTES

1.  Image obtained on December 10, 2013, at the site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monet.

2. Image obtained on December 10, 2013, at the site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Turner.